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Title: Effects of cadmium perturbation on the microbial community structure and heavy metal resistome of a tropical agricultural soil
Authors: Salami, Lateef B.
Oluwafemi, S.
Obayori, O. S.
Ilori, Mathew O.
Amund, Olukayode O.
Keywords: Cadmium
Agricultural soil
Heavy metals
Soil microcosm
Shotgun metagenomics
Microbial community structure and function
Heavy metal resistome
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Springer Open
Citation: Salam Lateef B., Oluwafemi S., Obayori O. S., Ilori Mathew O.& Amund Olukayode O. (2020) Effects of cadmium perturbation on the microbial community structure and heavy metal resistome of a tropical agricultural soil. Springer Open.
Abstract: The effects of cadmium (Cd) contamination on the microbial community structure, soil physicochemistry and heavy metal resistome of a tropical agricultural soil were evaluated in field-moist soil microcosms. A Cd-contaminated agricultural soil (SL5) and an untreated control (SL4) were compared over a period of 5 weeks. Analysis of the physicochemical properties and heavy metals content of the two microcosms revealed a statistically significant decrease in value of the soil physicochemical parameters (P < 0.05) and concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se) content of the agricultural soil in SL5 microcosm. Illumina shotgun sequencing of the DNA extracted from the two microcosms showed the predominance of the phyla, classes, genera and species of Proteobacteria (37.38%), Actinobacteria (35.02%), Prevotella (6.93%), and Conexibacter woesei (8.93%) in SL4, and Proteobacteria (50.50%), Alphaproteobacteria (22.28%), Methylobacterium (9.14%), and Methylobacterium radiotolerans (12,80%) in SL5, respectively. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference between the metagenomes was observed at genus and species delineations. Functional annotation of the two metagenomes revealed diverse heavy metal resistome for the uptake, transport, efflux and detoxification of various heavy metals. It also revealed the exclusive detection in SL5 metagenome of members of RND (resistance nodulation division) protein czcCBA efflux system (czcA, czrA, czrB), CDF (cation diffusion facilitator) transporters (czcD), and genes for enzymes that protect the microbial cells against cadmium stress (sodA, sodB, ahpC). The results obtained in this study showed that Cd contamination significantly affects the soil microbial community structure and function, modifies the heavy metal resistome, alters the soil physicochemistry and results in massive loss of some autochthonous members of the community not adapted to the Cd stress.
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